Tarantulas are found in a variety of different habitat such as dry deserts, tropical rainforests and mountainous forests. They prefer warm climates and in USA (one genus Aphonopelma) they are found from the Southwest and east to the Mississippi river, south throughout Mexico and Central America and South America to southern Chile/Argentina. The New World and especially South America is home to the largest number of genus and species of theraphosids. Tarantulas are also found throughout Africa (except the extreme sand desert of Sahara) with smaller Ischnocolinae in the northern parts of the continent and Hysterocrates and Phoneyusa in the tropical central parts of Africa while the genus Pterinochilus and Ceratogyrus inhabit the drier regions.
In Asia tarantulas are found especially in India and Sri Lanka (for example Poecilotheria), South East Asia (e.g. Haplopelma), east to Hong Kong and parts of Australia and Papua New Guinea (subfamily Selenocosmiinae). There is even a species living on high altitud in Nepal¹. In Europe have a few species in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Turkey and Cyprus of the genus Ischnocolus and Chaetopelma.
¹ Schmidt, G.E.W. & V. von Wirth. 1996.
Haplocosmia nepalensis gen. et sp. n., die erste Vogelspinne aus Nepal (Araneida: Theraphosidae: Selenocosmiinae). Arthropoda 4: 12-15.